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for the English Language Office (ELO) of the U.S. Embassy in Moscow

– the use of correct forms of grammar, vocabulary and pronunciation. In an accuracy activity, students typically give more attention to correctness.

(target, goal, task) – an aim that is not too difficult for the learner to reach.

(language) – learning a language without studying it, just by hearing and/or reading and then using it.

– things that people do in order to achieve a particular aim.

Activity (group work)
– a group work activity in which different members of the group have different tasks related to the same topic. Students perform the tasks individually, then come back to the group to put the information or pieces together "jigsaw puzzle" style.

(material) – to change a text, a task or any other material, so that it is suitable to use with a particular class.

– related to learner’s feelings, attitude, values, and motivation.

– what the teacher tries to achieve in the lesson or course.

A subsidiary aim
– the secondary focus of the lesson, less important than the main aim.

– a method of doing something or dealing with a problem.

Approach (Functional)
– a way of teaching which uses a syllabus based on functions rather than on grammatical structures.

Approach (Lexical)
– a way of analyzing language that is based on lexical items such as words, multi-word units, collocations and fixed expressions rather than grammatical structures. Some ELT books and materials organize their syllabuses around the Lexical Approach.

Approach (Structural)
– a way of teaching which uses a syllabus based on grammatical structures. The order that the language is presented is usually based on how difficult it is thought to be.

Approach (Communicative)
– a way of teaching which is based on the principle that learning a language successfully involves communication rather than just memorizing a series of rules. Teachers try to focus on meaningful communication, rather than focusing on accuracy and correcting mistakes all the time.

Assessment (Formative)
– a relatively informal assessment that takes place during the process of learning, as opposed to at the end. The purpose is to provide feedback, which helps the learning process.

Assessment (Summative)
– formal testing or evaluation at the end of a learning period to measure what a student has learned.

Assessment (Peer)
– learners evaluate each other’s work, using pre-set guidelines.

Assessment (Self-assessment)
– a reflective process in which learners evaluate their own work based on pre-set criteria.

Assessment (Continuous)
– a type of assessment which is different from a final examination. Some or all of the work that students do during a course is part of the final mark.

Assessment (Informal)
– refers to tasks, activities, and materials used in "real" life by native speakers of a language for actual communicative needs. In a language classroom, they can be used in simulated situations.

Authentic – refers to tasks, activities, and materials used in "real" life by native speakers of a language for actual communicative needs. In a language classroom, they can be used in simulated situations.

Authentic materials
– materials used in the target culture for actual communicative needs. They should enable the learner to hear, read, and produce language as it is used in the target culture.

Authentic tasks
– tasks or activities that are used in the "real" world for actual communication needs. Teachers can have learners do authentic tasks for practice or for real world application.

– a focus on aspects of language within a given context, paying attention to or noticing the language detail in a context.

Awareness (Language)
– understanding the rules of how language works.

Awareness (to raise awareness)
– is to help students understand something that they may not already know. For example, if you teach learning strategies, it can raise students’ awareness reflecting on how they learn.

– mental processes, especially those used in learning, such as thinking, remembering, classifying, recognizing, synthesizing, etc.

– the mental processes involved in thinking, understanding or learning.

Collaborative Learning
– a method of teaching and learning in which students team together to explore a significant question or create a meaningful project. A group of students discussing a lecture or students from different schools working together over the Internet on a shared assignment are both examples of collaborative learning.

– to exchange information or conversation with other people, using words, signs, writing etc.

– the ability to communicate in a target language for meaningful purposes. Such an ability requires the use of language skills together in social interaction.

– relating to the ability to communicate, especially in a foreign language.

Communicative activity
– a classroom activity in which students need to communicate to complete the activity.

Communicative competence
– the ability to communicate in a target language for meaningful purposes. Such ability requires the use of language skills together in social interaction.

– the ability and skill to do what is needed.

Comprehensible input
– language which can be generally understood by the learner but which contains linguistic items or grammatical patterns that are slightly above the learner's competence.

Conscious effort
– the effort that learners make deliberately, knowing and understanding the purpose for the action.

– the ideas, facts, or opinions that are contained in a speech, piece of writing, film, program etc.

– the situation in which language is used or presented in the classroom, the words or phrases before or after a word which help a student to understand that word.

– to put new language into a situation that shows what it means.

Cooperative Learning
– a specific kind of collaborative learning. In cooperative learning, students work together in small groups on a structured activity. They are individually accountable for their work, and the work of the group as a whole is also assessed.

Creative thinking
– new, alternative ways from the expected of looking at things that would be different.

Critical thinking
– the cognitive process of using reasoning skills to question and analyze the accuracy and /or worth of ideas, statements, new information, etc.

– taking a known idea or theory and applying it to a situation.

Echo correct
– when a student makes a mistake, the teacher repeats the mistake with rising intonation so that students can correct themselves.

– language production that is not correct. In applied linguistics research, it refers to patterns in production that shows incomplete or incorrect learning. A mistake that a learner makes when trying to say something above their level of language or language processing.

– to judge how good, useful, or successful something is (synonym assess).

– is when a teacher collects information about students’ performance and abilities.

– information which lets learners know how they are doing or whether their production is correct.

Feedback (to give)
– to tell students how well they are doing. This could be at a certain point in the course, or after an exercise that students have just completed.

– to communicate to a speaker that you understand (or not) what they are saying.

Feedback (Formative)
– is used to check on learner progress during the period of learning, to determine what has been learned so far and what still needs work.

Feedback (Summative)
– takes place at the end of a learning period to measure what has been achieved by the learners.

Feedback (Negative)
– informs learners directly when their work is incorrect.

Feedback (Positive)
– helps learners discover their own mistakes and self-correct. It avoids the use of negative wording.

– a drawing that uses shapes and lines to show how the different stages in a process are connected to each other. (Synonym: Flow-diagram).

– the use of connected speech at a natural speed without hesitation, repetition or self-correction. In a fluency activity, students typically give more attention to the communication of meaning, rather than correctness.

– the effect or influence that an event, situation etc has on someone or something.

Integrating skills
– language skills (reading, writing, speaking, etc.) used together for communication.

– the ability to understand things and to think intelligently.

– relating to the ability to understand things and think intelligently.

– the ability to learn, understand, and think about things, a high level of this ability.

Intelligence (Linguistic)
– the ability to read, write and communicate with words. Authors, journalists, poets, orators and comedians are obvious examples of people with linguistic intelligence.

Intelligence (Logical-Mathematical)
– the ability to reason and calculate, to think things through in a logical, systematic manner. These are the kinds of skills highly developed in engineers, scientists, economists, accountants, detectives and members of the legal profession.

Intelligence (Visual-Spatial)
– the ability to think in pictures, visualize a future result. To imagine things in your mind's eye. Architects, sculptors, sailors, photographers and strategic planners. You use it when you have a sense of direction, when you navigate or draw.

Intelligence (Musical)
– the ability to make or compose music, to sing well, or understand and appreciate music. To keep rhythm. It's a talent obviously enjoyed by musicians, composers, and recording engineers.

Intelligence (Bodily-Kinesthetic)
– the ability to use your body skillfully to solve problems, create products or present ideas and emotions. An ability obviously displayed for athletic pursuits, dancing, acting, artistically, or in building and construction.

Intelligence (Interpersonal (Social)
– the ability to work effectively with others, to relate to other people, and display empathy and understanding, to notice their motivations and goals. This is a vital human intelligence displayed by good teachers, facilitators, therapists, politicians, religious leaders and sales people.

Intelligence (Intrapersonal)
– the ability for self-analysis and reflection–to be able to quietly contemplate and assess one's accomplishments, to review one's behavior and innermost feelings, to make plans and set goals, the capacity to know oneself. Philosophers, counselors, and many peak performers in all fields of endeavor have this form of intelligence.

Intelligence (Naturalist)
– the ability to recognize flora and fauna, to make other consequential distinctions in the natural world and to use this ability productively–for example in hunting, farming, or biological science. Farmers, botanists, conservationists, biologists, environmentalists would all display aspects of the intelligence.

– a ‘two-way communication’.

Interactive strategies
– the means used, especially in speaking, to keep people involved and interested in what is said, e.g. eye contact, use of gestures, functions such as repeating, asking for clarification.

Language (Formal Language/Register)

– register or language used in serious or important situations, e.g. in a job application.

Informal (Informal Language/Register)

– register or language used in relaxed or friendly situations, e.g. with family or friends.

Language proficiency
– a learner's overall competence in a language.

Language skills
– primary language skills: reading, writing, listening, and speaking.

Language skills (Productive skills)

– the primary skills of speaking and writing.

Language skills (Receptive skills)

– the primary skills of listening and reading.

Learning (Deductive)
– is an approach to learning in which students are first taught the rules and given all the information they need about the language. Then they use these rules in language activities.

Learning (Inductive)
– is an approach to learning in which students are not first taught the rules of grammar. They work out the rules for themselves by using the language.

Learning strategies
– the techniques which a student consciously uses when learning or using language, e.g. deducing the meaning of words from context; predicting content before reading.

Learning style
– the way in which an individual learner naturally prefers to learn something.

– global understanding of thinking or mental processes that enables learners to recognize, monitor, and organize those processes in themselves. Also called “global strategies”.

– an activity which involves students walking round the classroom talking to other students.

– incorrect language production. In research, as opposed to the specialized meaning of "error", a mistake is the result of inattention or carelessness, rather than incomplete learning.

– to make someone want to do or achieve something and be willing to work harder in order to do so. (antonym: Demotivate – to make someone lose motivation).

– psychological factors that determine how much effort learners are willing to apply to accomplish or learn something, the thoughts and feelings which make us want to do something and help us continue doing it.

Open pairs
– In open pairs, one pair does a pairwork activity in front of the class. This technique is useful for showing how to do an activity and/or for focusing on accuracy.

– the final result.

Peer reinforcement
– a type of feedback from friends or other students in the class that supports positive behavior and/or learning.

– the act of doing a piece of work, duty etc.

Problem solving
– a kind of students’ work in pairs or groups to find the solution to a problem. Problem-solving activities usually help to develop fluency.

– very good at something because of training and practice, e.g. speaking English.

Proficiency level
– the level of a learner's language ability. How much language the learner knows and can use/

Project work
– an activity which focuses on completing a task on a specific topic. Students often work in groups to create something , such as a class magazine. Students sometimes have to do some work by themselves, sometimes outside the classroom.

– the purpose of something is what it is intended to achieve (synonym aim).

– real objects such as menus, timetables and leaflets that can easily be brought into the classroom for a range of purposes.

– the formality or informality of the language used in a particular situation. Formal register or language is used in serious or important situations, e.g. in a job application. Informal register or language is used in relaxed or friendly situations, e.g. with family or friends.

– directly relating to the subject or problem being discussed or considered.

– the ability to keep something in your memory.

– classroom activity in which students are given roles to act out in a given situation.

– when students are able to correct language mistakes they have made, when asked without help from the teacher or other students.

– a special ability that you need to learn in order to do a particular job or activity, an ability to do something well, especially because you have learned and practiced it.

Skills (Social) – ability to deal with people easily.

Skills (Study) – skills that help you study efficiently and be successful in school.

Communicative skills (communication skills) – the way people express themselves so that other people will understand.

Skill, subskill – the four language skills are listening, speaking, reading and writing. Each skill can be divided into smaller subskills that are all part of the main skill, e.g. identifying text organization (reading); identifying word stress (listening).

Sub-skills – are such as pronunciation, vocabulary use, spelling, etc. that contribute to success with the primary skills.

Develop skills is to teach students how to do activities like listening, and help them to understand how to listen.

Social studies
– the study of people in society.

– something that helps a process to develop more quickly or more strongly.

Target language culture
– the traditions and culture of the country whose language is being studied.

– an activity which students complete which has a definite result. For example problem-solving activities or information-gap activities.

Task-based Learning (TBL)
– a way of teaching in which the teacher gives students meaningful tasks to do. The teacher may ask students to think about the language they have used to do the tasks, but the main focus for students is on the task itself.

Teaching strategy
– the procedure or approach used by a teacher in the classroom, e.g. a teacher may choose to give thinking time to students before they speak.

Trial and error
– is learning by trying new or different language, taking risks, and learning from errors or mistakes.